Links

Below are listed external websites offering content of interest and relevance to our World Heritage Site or mining in Cornwall and west Devon generally. If you have a website with a Cornish mining connection and wish to have this listed, please contact the Cornish Mining World Heritage Site Office on:

Tel: + 44 (0)1872 322586          Email: enquiries@cornish-mining.org.uk

Cornish Mining World Heritage Site is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. 

For a list of research facilities covering Cornwall and Devon please visit the 'Dig Further' page, here.

Countryside and natural environment

General interest

Geology and mineralogy

Government bodies (local and national)

Heritage bodies and organisations

History and archaeology

International mining-related

Leisure and tourism

Mining heritage sites

Miscellaneous

Societies and groups (not exclusively mining related)

World Heritage Sites (mostly industrial)

 

Countryside and Natural Environment

Cornwall AONB - Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), along with National Parks are considered to be the most special landscapes in the country and belong to an international family of protected areas. There are 41 such areas in England and Wales. The Cornwall AONB was designated in 1959 under the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act, with the Camel estuary being added in 1981.

Tamar Valley AONB - This site contains information and news from the Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).

Cornwall Wildlife Trust - Cornwall Wildlife Trust is a registered charity, founded in 1962, which is involved in the many aspects of conserving Cornwall's wildlife and wild places.

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) - DEFRA is a UK Government Department whose principal role is to secure a healthy environment for all in which present and future generations can prosper. DEFRA helps people to adapt to changes, deals with environmental risks and makes the most of the opportunities we now have to secure a sustainable society.

Eden Project - Post-Mining Alliance - The Post Mining Alliance is an independent not-for-profit organisation with a mission to encourage and promote the regeneration of former mine sites for the sustainable benefit of the local community and natural environment.

Environment Agency - The Environment Agency are the leading public body for protecting and improving the environment and air, land and water quality in England and Wales.

National Farmers Union - The NFU was founded in 1908 as a subscription-based trade organisation to provide professional representation and services to its Farmer and Grower members, locally, nationally and internationally.

Natural England - Natural England is charged with the conservation and enhancement of the natural environment, for its intrinsic value, the wellbeing and enjoyment of people, and the economic prosperity that this brings.

South West Protected Landscapes Forum - The site is being developed as a portal to information about the 2 National Parks and 13 Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) that constitute the nationally designated landscapes of the south west region.

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General Interest

Views of Cornwall - This site provides over two thousand photos of more than one hundred and twenty different places throughout Cornwall.

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Geology and Mineralogy

British Geological Survey - The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the world's longest established national geological survey and the UK's premier centre for earth science information and expertise.

Camborne School of Mines (Exeter University) - CSM (Camborne School of Mines) was founded in 1888, has an international reputation, and is one of three departments that form the School of Geography, Archaeology and Earth Resources (SoGAER) within the University of Exeter. CSM is the only department within SoGAER to be based entirely within Cornwall. See also the Camborne School of Mines Association, below.

Camborne School of Mines Virtual Museum - navigate through pages explaining and detailing the geology of the Cornubian Orefield.

Cornwall Geoconservation Group - The Cornwall Geoconservation Group (formerly Cornwall RIGS Group), founded at a public meeting in 1991, is the geological arm of the Cornwall Wildlife Trust, concerned with geology and geomorphology and is a voluntary body which aims to do three things: Identify, Conserve, Raise awareness of Cornwall’s rich and diverse geological heritage.

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall - One of the oldest geological societies in the world.

Russell Society - The Russell Society is a society of amateur and professional mineralogists which encourages the study, recording and conservation of mineralogical sites and material.

UK RIGS contacts – inc. Devon

Nick LeBoutillier's Cornish Geology Website - independent website containing information on the nature and emplacement of the Cornubian Batholith of SW England and the subsequent phases of mineralisation across the Cornubian Orefield.

Liroconite – Cornwall geology website that specialises in the mineral Liroconite and other Cornish minerals.

Mineralogy Database - This mineral database contains over 4000 individual mineral species descriptions with links and a comprehensive image library.

Mining-Technology.com - a dedicated resource for professionals and students within the mining and quarrying industries

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Government Bodies (local and national)

Cornwall Council

West Devon Borough Council

Devon County Council

Cornwall Development Company

Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs

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Heritage Bodies and Organisations

English Heritage - English Heritage is the UK Government's statutory adviser on the historic environment. Officially known as the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, English Heritage is an Executive Non-departmental Public Body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) - DCMS, a UK Government body, aims to improve the quality of life for all through cultural and sporting activities, to support the pursuit of excellence and to champion the tourism, creative and leisure industries.

The National Trust - The National Trust was founded in 1895 by three Victorian philanthropists - Miss Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley. Concerned about the impact of uncontrolled development and industrialisation, they set up the Trust to act as a guardian for the nation in the acquisition and protection of threatened coastline, countryside and buildings.

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History and Archaeology

Access to Archives - The A2A database contains catalogues describing archives held throughout England and dating from the 900s to the present day.

Association for Industrial Archaeology - The AIA is the national organisation for people who share an interest in Britain's industrial past.

Auditory Archaeology and Historic Landscape Characterisation: Auditory archaeology aims to reconstruct the influence and significance of sound in present and past daily life. The approach was developed by Dr Stephen Mills during AHRB-funded doctoral research at Cardiff University’s School of History and Archaeology. A subsequent pilot project applied the techniques developed in auditory archaeology to Historic Landscape Characterisation in a 2km x 1km study area within the post-medieval mining landscape of West Penwith, Cornwall.

Bal Maidens & Mining Women - website exploring the many different roles which women and girls have undertaken at mines around the world with emphasis on those who worked at the mines, clay works and related industries in Cornwall and West Devon (known as bal maidens). Includes a searchable database of over 22,000 named individuals.

British Mining Database - a useful website where to find information about mines throughout the UK and Ireland. The information is primarily historical but some links to working mines are included.

Calstock Local History Group and Calstock Parish Archive Trust - east Cornwall local history group and archive.

The Census for England and Wales (1901) - the official genealogy site of the Welsh & English census information for 1901.

The Census for England and Wales (1911) - the official genealogy site of the Welsh & English census information for 1911.

Cornwall in Focus - Mining in Cornwall (with mining database) - web pages devoted to the main metalliferous mining areas of Cornwall with details of individual producers and their principal outputs.

The Cornish in Latin America - this website examines the nineteenth and early twentieth century Cornish migration to South and Central America and the Spanish Caribbean. The significance of Cornish migration to Latin America lay not in numbers: far fewer people migrated there than to the USA, South Australia, England and Wales or South Africa, but in the fact that the mines of Latin America were among the first to attract significant Cornish labour outside the British Isles and continued to recruit Cornish labour right into the 1930s. Many of the defining features of overseas Cornish migration during what has been dubbed the 'Great Migration' (c1815-1920) have their roots in Latin America.

Cornish Mines & Mining History in Cornwall - independent website with mine site and mining history pages.

Cornish Mining Heritage Programme (CMHP) - set up in 2005 at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Exeter, this programme seeks to attract academic research funding for projects related to mining history and to build links and enhance synergy with mining heritage organisations both within the UK and overseas in order to deliver quality research.

Cornwall Centre - Cornwall's largest library of Cornish printed and published items contains a wide range of resources for everyone's use.

Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative - Cornwall’s industrial settlements are the subject of a Conservation Area Partnership intended to assess the character and significance of 51 industrial settlements. These include villages, ports and towns associated with Cornwall’s 19th century industrial revolution, based on metalliferous mining, slate and granite quarrying, and china clay extraction.

Cornwall and Scilly Urban Survey - the Cornwall & Scilly Urban Survey is providing a framework for sustainable regeneration in 19 historic towns. The project integrates two key factors - improved understanding and characterisation of the rich and diverse historic environment which makes Cornwall and Scilly’s towns so distinctive and the identification of heritage-led regeneration opportunities so vital to the region’s future.

Cornwall Library Service

Cornwall Record Office - an archive service for Cornwall.  Its main purpose is to ensure that the historical records relating to the people, places and organisations of Cornwall are preserved for the future and made available for public consultation including a wide range of documents dating from the 12th to the 20th centuries. This includes thousands of maps, plans, photographs, parchment documents and volumes which contain information on local families and their estates, businesses, schools and villages, together with evidence for maritime and mining activities.

Devon Record Office - the Devon Record Office exists to collect and preserve the historical records of Devon and to make them available to all who wish to study them.

Flying Past - Flying Past is the culmination of a twelve year project mapping archaeological and historical sites visible on aerial photos in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. The mapping team studied more than 50,000 aerial photos taken between 1926 and 2005. The project was commissioned and funded by English Heritage and the mapping was carried out by the Historic Environment Service of Cornwall Council.

Holman Rock Drill Collection - the Rock Drill Collection comprises many of the rock drills produced by Holman Bros, Camborne, spanning a period from their first patented drill in 1881 through to the 1990s. An important part of Cornwall's mining history, the collection is now owned by Mining and Management Consultancy and is housed at their premises and at King Edward Mine, Troon (courtesy of The Trevithick Society), and Poldark Mine, Wendron.

Institute of Cornish Studies (Exeter University) - the ICS exists to support and foster academic research on Cornwall and to carry out research projects on Cornwall and its past. The ICS was formed in 1970 as a unique collaborative venture between Cornwall Council and the University of Exeter.

Mineral Tramways Heritage Project - identifies and describes current and proposed trails and some of the major heritage sites that can be explored in the area. Also includes Tin & Fishes play script as a freely available download.

Mining Heritage - free historical material related to mining and minerals.

Mining Heritage Cornwall 365 - this site is updated with new photographs of Cornwall UK 365 days a year.

Mining History Network - wide ranging and authoritative website for mining history sources and information. Maintained by Prof. Roger Burt, University of Exeter.

Nation on Film - Cornwall, Last Mine Standing - BBC website with some video clips.

The National Archives - the National Archives, which covers England, Wales and the United Kingdom, was formed in April 2003 by bringing together the Public Record Office and the Historical Manuscripts Commission.

Roland’s Cornish Steam Engine Page - a website focusing on the Cornish-design engine which includes images and 3D rendered computer models.

Royal Cornwall Museum - the Royal Cornwall Museum is located in the heart of the city of Truro. It is owned and managed by the Royal Institution of Cornwall which was created to provide lectures, facilities for study and a museum. The museum displays local material from prehistoric times to the present day including  minerals from all over the world and one of the best collections of Cornish minerals in the country, including the largest known crystal of Liroconite in the world, displays of birds and animals in their natural habitats, a wide range of decorative and applied art including a large selection of ceramics, classical Greek and Roman artefacts and a permanent exhibition of paintings.

The Royal Institution of Cornwall (RIC), the organisation that owns and manages the museum, is a learned society and a registered charity. Founded in 1818 as the Cornwall Literary and Philosophical Institution, the name was changed to the RIC upon being granted the patronage of George IV in 1821. For more than 150 years the Institution has assumed the role of publisher for authors and academics. This is viewed as an important and practical means of supporting local researchers as it ensures that their work is printed and thereby made more widely available. Many of these works have since become classics and it is a tradition that the Institution hopes to continue.

South West Museums Libraries Archives Council - SWMLAC is the regional development agency for museums, libraries and archives, covering the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire, the unitary authorities of Bath & North East Somerset, Borough of Poole, Bournemouth, Bristol, North Somerset, Plymouth, South Gloucestershire, Swindon and Torbay, together with the Isles of Scilly and the Channel Islands.

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International Mining-Related

Allihies Copper Mine Museum - Find out more about this important mining district in south west Ireland through the newly opened museum created within the former Methodist Chapel. In 1812 a rich copper deposit was discovered near Allihies, founding a major mining industry with strong Cornish connections. A copper mine trail has recently been created with way guide enabling the adventurous to explore the rugged and beautiful landscape around the village. 

Cornish Association of New South Wales - Established in 1974, the Cornish Association of New South Wales (CANSW), formerly the Cornish Association of Sydney, is the equal second oldest Cornish Association in Australia, and the second largest.

Cornish Association of Victoria - Formed in 1986 to stimulate interest in the history, antiquities, traditions and social history of Cornwall, the association also encourages the restoration and maintenance of Cornish Heritage in Australia in conjunction with State organisations, local government and the National Trust of Australia.

The Cornish in Latin America - A website devoted to the Cornish in Latin America. Results from Dr Sharron Schwartz's research and writing about nineteenth and early twentieth century Cornish migration to South and Central America and the Spanish Caribbean.

The Cornish in West Cork - Cornish miners in South West Ireland.

The Cruquius Museum - The Cruquius pumping station was used to pump the Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands and was built between 1846-1849.  The main attraction is the large Cruquius engine, the steam engine, built by Harvey's of Hayle, Cornwall, with the cylinder with the largest diameter in the world, almost 3.5 m or 144"!  After a period on stand-by Cruquius finally became redundant in 1932.

Glengowla Mines is an historic nineteenth century silver and lead working, situated in Oughterard, County Galway, which is Ireland's only show mine open to the public. In the 1850s, around 300 toiled to extract the valuable silver-bearing galena (lead ore) and today the atmospheric underground workings are visible once more following an extensive excavation programme completed in 1998. Glengowla also retains a number of historic mining features at surface, and its heritage and visitor centre where the story of the mines is told.

ICOMOS UK - ICOMOS is a non-governmental organisation whose mandate is the world's cultural heritage. Through its national committees worldwide, it provides a forum for professional dialogue.

London Museum of Water & Steam - The Kew Bridge Engines Trust and Water Supply Museum Limited, a registered charity, was formed in 1973 to: restore to steam the five historic beam engines at the former Grand Junction Water Works Company's Kew Bridge Pumping Station, to add other important water pumping engines and to establish a museum of London's water supply.

Laxey Mines Research Group - Explore the mines of the Isle of Man, above and below ground.

Mining Heritage Trust of Ireland - The Mining Heritage Society of Ireland was founded in 1996 to develop public awareness, appreciation, conservation and enjoyment of all facets of mining heritage throughout Ireland and converted to trust status in 2001.

Moonta Copper Mine, South Australia - webpage covering the discovery and development of mining at Moonta created by the Outback Research and History Consultancy.

National Association of Mining History Organisations - NAMHO was formed in 1979 to act as the national body for mining history in the UK and Ireland. There are now over 50 member organisations, including societies, museums and businesses.

Federation of Old Cornwall Societies - Diaspora page - this web page has been added to the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies' site in order to let people around the world pass on what is happening in their part of the worldwide Cornish community. If you are Cornish and do not belong to an Association and feel you have some news relating to Cornish history or culture in your area, then why not contact the Society and let them know.

The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH) - the world organisation for industrial heritage, promoting preservation, conservation, investigation, documentation, research and interpretation of our industrial heritage.

UNESCO World Heritage Site - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation World Heritage Site website.

Wisconsin Historical Society - website covering the settlement of Pendarvis, Wisconsin, which experienced significant Cornish migration relating to lead mining from the 1830s.

Yorke Peninsula, South Australia - Also known as "Little Cornwall"  the Yorke Peninsula has a rich and varied historical background. In the north was the main copper mining area which attracted tin miners from Cornwall.

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Leisure and Tourism

Visit Cornwall - official website of the Cornwall Tourist Board. Discover what else Cornwall has to offer through its spectacular environment, history and heritage, its arts and culture. Up to date information covering accommodation and great places to eat and shop are given alongside a searchable 'what's on' guide.

The Official Guide to the South West Coast Path - The South West Coast Path National Trail - 630 miles of superb coastal walking. From Minehead on the edge of the Exmoor National Park to the shores of Poole Harbour in Dorset, it is the best way to enjoy the wonderful coastal scenery, wildlife and heritage.

Land's End Area Accommodation Providers - listings of bed and breakfast, self-catering and caravan and camping sites in west Cornwall.

South East Cornwall Tourist Association - find out more about what to see and experience in south east Cornwall.

Tamar Valley Tourism Association - The Tamar Valley is an area rich in beauty and history, possessing some of the finest scenery in the West Country. The Estuary is an important haven for wildlife, such as the avocet and little egret. The valley of the river Tamar - and its tributaries, the Tavy and Lynher - is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Best of Bodmin Moor - Information about Bodmin Moor, including some of the best quality Bed and Breakfast, Self Catering Cottages, and Camping and Caravan Sites available in Cornwall. It describes the moorland scenery, and details the books and published guides about Bodmin Moor, including the various walks that may be enjoyed in this inspirational Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Cornish Farm Holidays - gives you access to farms providing the highest quality Bed and Breakfast and Self Catering Holiday Cottage accommodation throughout Cornwall. It is a cooperative run on a voluntary basis by its members, to assist Cornwall's farmers in their ambition to provide you the very best holiday accommodation as part of their farming business. 

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Mining Heritage Sites

Blue Hills Tin Streams - Blue Hills tin streaming works is located at the seaward end of the Trevellas Valley near St Agnes; knowledgeable and friendly staff are on hand to demonstrate the skilful identification of tin ore and the varied techniques of refining.

Wheal Martyn China Clay Museum - situated at Carthew, near St Austell - presents the rich industrial heritage of china clay production in mid-Cornwall and the technological links with hard-rock metalliferous mining.

East Pool Mine - Impressive beam engines and industrial heritage discovery centre. Cornwall’s engine houses are dramatic reminders of the time when Cornwall was a powerhouse of tin, copper and china clay mining. These two great beam engines were used for pumping water (from a depth of over 550m) and for winding men and ore up and down. The engines were originally powered by high-pressure steam, introduced by the local engineer Richard Trevithick. Today one is rotated by electricity. The site also includes the Industrial Discovery Centre at East Pool, which provides an overview of Cornwall’s industrial heritage and incorporates a fascinating audio-visual presentation.

Dartmoor National Park Authority - Dartmoor was designated one of the National Parks of England and Wales in 1951. It is a beautiful moorland landscape with wooded valleys and wind swept Tors covering 368 square miles (953 sq. km.) in area.

Geevor Tin Mine - the largest preserved mining site in the UK. In the far west of Cornwall, on the Atlantic Coast here Cornwall's mining history comes to life. Until 1990 Geevor was working mine, now a musem with many surface buildings with guided underground tours through 18th / 19th century workings.

Heartlands - is a community-led vision which transformed the Robinson's Shaft site of South Crofty Mine into a truly inspirational cultural landscape which also celebrates the mining heritage of the Pool/Camborne/Redruth area.

King Edward Mine & Museum - operated by dedicated volunteers and open to the public, King Edward Mine holds an extensive collection of tin processing equipment within an Edwardian purpose-built student training facility, unique in Britain.

Levant Mine and Beam Engine - Levant is owned and managed by The National Trust and is the home to Cornwall's oldest working beam engine, constructed in 1840 by Harvey's Foundry, Hayle.

The Mineral Tramways Heritage Project (2005-8)  - Explore the Great Flat Lode Trail, the Coast to Coast Trail plus 29km of new trails for 2008. The Mineral Tramways Heritage Project shows and describes the routes of current and proposed trails and introduces some of the major heritage sites that can be explored in the area.

Morwellham and Tamar Valley Trust - An award-winning, evocative museum and visitor centre based around the historic copper port and mine workings on the River Tamar.

Poldark Mine - Poldark Mine hosts a variety of attractions including an underground tour of the eighteenth century Wheal Roots, a dedicated mining museum, and amusements and craft workshops.

Rosevale Mine - Rosevale Mine is a privately owned former tin mine situated at Zennor, near St Ives in west Cornwall. For the past 30 years the underground workings have been restored and preserved as a typical Cornish mine by a small group of extremely dedicated volunteers.

Tolgus Tin, Redruth - One of the last tin dressing mills in Cornwall, Tolgus retains an impressive collection of ore dressing machinery including water powered stamps, shaking tables and a round frame – the latter, one of only two in existence.

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Miscellaneous

Carn Metals

Duchy of Cornwall

IMERYS

Tregothnan Estate

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Societies and Groups (not exclusively mining related)

Camborne School of Mines Association - The Camborne School of Mines Association was formed for all former students of the School and is an independent, self-governing organisation which finances itself entirely - mostly through the subscriptions of members. There are currently around 1,000 members around the world, who receive three newsletters per year and a copy of the CSM Association Journal, which has been published since 1896. The Association helps to organise social functions and these have been held in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Johannesburg and Vancouver, to name but a few.

Carn Brea Mining Society - The Carn Brea Mining Society was formed in 1974 with the objective of studying all aspects on mining, geology and mineralogy in the south west of Britain. The Society hosts regular meetings and talks, and publishes an informative illustrated newsletter.

Cornish Institute of Engineers - The CIE began in 1913 as the Cornish Institution of Mining, Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering, later being renamed the Cornish Institute of Engineers. It is the oldest institution of its type in Cornwall and aims to advance all branches of engineering through the encouragement of the exchange of information and ideas.

The Cornish-Mexican Cultural Society - The Cornish-Mexican Cultural Society was established in 2006 with the objectives of fostering and promoting the historic cultural ties between Cornwall and Mexico, and in particular the State of Hidalgo and the municipalities of Pachuca and Real del Monte which experienced much mining-related migration during the nineteenth century.

Cornish Stannary Parliament - The Cornish Stannary Parliament has its origins in the late twelfth century when the laws and practice relating to tin mining, and taxation (coinage), were first established. Today supporters highlight the many and varied issues relating to the constitutional status of Cornwall, at a time when the UK is experiencing significant change through devolution.

Cornwall Family History Society
- the Society aims to become a ‘centre of excellence’ encouraging research into Cornish family history, by co-ordinating transcription and indexing of original records by its members, by maintaining a research library in Truro for members and the general public, by offering a means of contact and information exchange between members. The Society was formed in 1976 and now has over 5000 active members, mostly outside Cornwall, with many in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA and other countries.

Cornwall Heritage Trust - The CHT was established in 1985 in response to a realisation that Cornwall was losing, as a result of commercial pressures, ignorance or neglect, or merely the effects of time and the natural elements, too much of its unique heritage.

Devon Archaeological Society - the Society aims to promote and conserve Devon's archaeological sites and landscapes, to foster research and to develop a great understanding of archaeology amongst its membership and the wider public.

Devon Family History Societies - website for people wishing to explore Devon family histories.

Georgian Group - The Georgian Group, a national charity, is dedicated to preserving Georgian buildings and gardens in Britain.

John Passmore Edwards - In just 14 years over 70 major buildings were established as a direct result of bequests from John Passmore Edwards as well as many other gifts and donations to further their good work. Hospitals, Libraries, Schools, Convalescent Homes and Art galleries were provided, many of which continue to serve the community to which they were given. This site contains a wealth of information about the life and works of this renowned Victorian philanthropist.

The Newcomen Society - The Newcomen Society is the world's oldest learned society devoted to the study of the history of engineering and technology. Based in London, it is concerned with all branches of engineering: civil, mechanical, electrical, structural, aeronautical, marine, chemical and manufacturing.

Plymouth Caving Group - The PCG is a caving club which regularly visits caves and mines in Devon and Cornwall, with some weekend trips to Wales, the Mendips, the Yorkshire Dales and occasional trips to France, Spain and beyond.

Portreath Harbour Association (PHA) - The PHA is concerned with all activities and events relating to the historic copper harbour of Portreath on Cornwall's north coast.

The Trevithick Society - The Trevithick Society is one of the oldest industrial preservation societies in the UK, founded in 1935. The Society is based in Cornwall but has interests in Cornish industry wherever it may be. A registered educational charity, the Society takes its name from one of Britain's foremost inventors and pioneers of the Industrial Revolution, Richard Trevithick, a Cornishman whose name is inseparable from the development of steam power.

Victorian Society - Founded in 1958 the Victorian Society aims to conserve significant Victorian and Edwardian buildings in England and Wales, and to raise awareness and appreciation of arts, architecture, crafts and design from these periods.

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World Heritage Sites (mostly industrial)

Banská Štiavnica - Over the centuries, the town of Banska Stiavnica was visited by many outstanding engineers and scientists, many of whom contributed to its fame. The old medieval mining centre grew into a town with Renaissance palaces, 16th-century churches, elegant squares and castles. The urban centre blends into the surrounding landscape, which contains vital relics of the mining and metallurgical activities of the past.

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape - The area around Blaenavon is evidence of the pre-eminence of South Wales as the world's major producer of iron and coal in the 19th century. All the necessary elements can still be seen - coal and ore mines, quarries, a primitive railway system, furnaces, workers' homes, and the social infrastructure of their community. Please also see: http://www.visitblaenavon.co.uk/en/Homepage.aspx

City of Potosi - In the 16th century, this area was regarded as the world's largest industrial complex. The extraction of silver ore relied on a series of hydraulic mills. The site consists of the industrial monuments of the Cerro Rico, where water is provided by an intricate system of aqueducts and artificial lakes; the colonial town with the Casa de la Moneda; the Church of San Lorenzo; several patrician houses; and the barrios mitayos, the areas where the workers lived.

Derwent Valleys Mills - In December 2001, the Derwent Valley Mills in Derbyshire became inscribed as a World Heritage Site. This international designation confirms the outstanding importance of the area as the birthplace of the factory system where in the 18th Century water power was successfully harnessed for textile production. Stretching 15 miles down the river valley from Matlock Bath to Derby, the World Heritage Site contains a fascinating series of historic mill complexes, including some of the world's first 'modern' factories.

Dorset and East Devon Coast - The cliff exposures along the Dorset and East Devon coast provide an almost continuous sequence of rock formations spanning the Mesozoic Era, or some 185 million years of the earth's history. The area's important fossil sites and classic coastal geomorphologic features have contributed to the study of earth sciences for over 300 years. Please also see: http://jurassiccoast.org/

Engelsberg Ironworks - Sweden's production of superior grades of iron made it a leader in this field in the 17th and 18th centuries. This site is the best-preserved and most complete example of this type of Swedish ironworks.

Historic Centre of Zacatecas - Founded in 1546 after the discovery of a rich silver lode, Zacatecas reached the height of its prosperity in the 16th and 17th centuries. Built on the steep slopes of a narrow valley, the town has breathtaking views and there are many old buildings, both religious and civil. The cathedral, built between 1730 and 1760, dominates the centre of the town. It is notable for its harmonious design and the Baroque profusion of its façades, where European and indigenous decorative elements are found side by side.

Historic Town of Guanajuato and Adjacent Mines - Founded by the Spanish in the early 16th century, Guanajuato became the world's leading silver-extraction centre in the 18th century. This past can be seen in its 'subterranean streets' and the 'Boca del Inferno', a mineshaft that plunges a breathtaking 600 m. The town's fine Baroque and neoclassical buildings, resulting from the prosperity of the mines, have influenced buildings throughout central Mexico. The churches of La Compañía and La Valenciana are considered to be among the most beautiful examples of Baroque architecture in Central and South America. Guanajuato was also witness to events which changed the history of the country.

Historic Town of Ouro Preto - Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto (Black Gold) was the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century. With the exhaustion of the gold mines in the 19th century, the city's influence declined but many churches, bridges and fountains remain as a testimony to its past prosperity and the exceptional talent of the Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho.

Ironbridge Gorge is known throughout the world as the symbol of the Industrial Revolution. It contains all the elements of progress that contributed to the rapid development of this industrial region in the 18th century, from the mines themselves to the railway lines. Nearby, the blast furnace of Coalbrookdale, built in 1708, is a reminder of the discovery of coke. The bridge at Ironbridge, the world's first bridge constructed of iron, had a considerable influence on developments in the fields of technology and architecture. See also: http://www.ironbridge.org.uk/

Las Médulas - In the 1st century A.D. the Roman Imperial authorities began to exploit the gold deposits of this region in north-west Spain, using a technique based on hydraulic power. After two centuries of working the deposits, the Romans withdrew, leaving a devastated landscape. Since there was no subsequent industrial activity, the dramatic traces of this remarkable ancient technology are visible everywhere as sheer faces in the mountainsides and the vast areas of tailings, now used for agriculture.

Mines of Rammelsberg and Historic Town of Goslar - Situated near the Rammelsberg mines, Goslar held an important place in the Hanseatic League because of the rich Rammelsberg metallic ore deposits. From the 10th to the 12th century it was one of the seats of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Its well-preserved medieval historic centre has some 1,500 half-timbered houses dating from the 15th to the 19th century.

Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun - The enormous mining excavation known as the Great Pit at Falun is the most striking feature of a landscape that illustrates the activity of copper production in this region since at least the 13th century. The 17th-century planned town of Falun with its many fine historic buildings, together with the industrial and domestic remains of a number of settlements spread over a wide area of the Dalarna region, provide a vivid picture of what was for centuries one of the world's most important mining areas. Please also see: www.varldsarvetfalun.se/

New Lanark is a small 18th- century village set in a sublime Scottish landscape where the philanthropist and Utopian idealist Robert Owen moulded a model industrial community in the early 19th century. The imposing cotton mill buildings, the spacious and well-designed workers' housing, and the dignified educational institute and school still testify to Owen's humanism.

Røros - The history of Røros, which stands in a mountainous setting, is linked to the copper mines: they were developed in the 17th century and exploited for 333 years until 1977. Completely rebuilt after its destruction by Swedish troops in 1679, the city has some 80 wooden houses, most of them standing around courtyards. Many retain their dark pitch-log facades, giving the town a medieval appearance.

Saltaire World Heritage Site, West Yorkshire, is a complete and well-preserved industrial village of the second half of the 19th century. Its textile mills, public buildings and workers' housing are built in a harmonious style of high architectural standards and the urban plan survives intact, giving a vivid impression of Victorian philanthropic paternalism.

Sewell Mining Town - Situated at 2,000 m in the Andes, 60 km to the east of Rancagua, in an environment marked by extremes of climate, Sewell Mining Town was built by the Braden Copper company in 1905 to house workers at what was to become the world’s largest underground copper mine, El Teniente. It is an outstanding example of the company towns that were born in many remote parts of the world from the fusion of local labour and resources from an industrialised nation, to mine and process high-value natural resources.

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